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DERSLER
  1- A/an
  2- Verb 'To Be"
  3- This, That, These, Those
  4- Capital Letters
  5- Prepositions in, on, at,
  6- Irregular Verbs
  7- The Plural Of Nouns
  8- Have got, has got
  9- Subject and Object Pronouns
  10- Directions
  11- Some and Any
  12- Must and Mustn't
  13- Adjectives
  14- Gerunds
  15- Frequency Adverbs
  16- Would like - want
  17- Conditionals - Type 1
  18- Imperatives
  19- Simple Present Tense 1
  20- Simple Present Tense 2
  21- Simple Present Tense 3
  22- Simple Past Tense 1
  23- Simple Past Tense 2
  24- Present Continuous Tense
  25- Present Perfect Tense 1
  26- Present Perfect Tense 2
  27- Be Going To
  28- Will and Shall
  29- So because
  30- a.m - p.m
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PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

1.Present Perfect Tense'in Yapısı:

Türkçe'de karşıtı bulunmayan bu zaman Türk öğrenciler tarafından kavranması oldukca güç olmaktadır. Bu zaman iki ögeden meydana gelmektedir. Birincisi aynen geniş zamanda kullandığımız şekliyle 'have' yardımcı fiilidir. İkincisi ise esas fiil olarak kullanacağımız fiilin ücüncü şeklidir.
Fiilin ücüncü şekli fiile -ed eklenerek yapılan Regular Verbs (Düzenli Fiiler) ya da fiilin değişime uğradığı Irregular Verbs (Düzensiz Fiiller)'dir.
Not: Düzensiz Fiillerin Listesi için tıklayınız.


Olumlu (Subject + have + verb 3)

I

have

studied English.

You

have

given the clues.

He

has

read the book.

She

has

visited the museum.

It

has

flown.

We

have

bought a new car.

They

have

gone to New York.

Olumsuz (Subject + have not + verb 3)

I

haven't

written the letter.

You

haven't

replied.

He

hasn't

watched the film.

She

hasn't

cooked the meal.

It

hasn't

drunk the milk.

We

haven't

asked the question.

They

haven't

completed the construction.

Soru (Have + Subject + Verb 3)

Have

I

asked that question?

Have

You

read the newspaper?

Has

he

clarified the problem?

Has

she

had an accident?

Has

it

climbed the wall?

Have

we

solve the problem?

Have

they

sold the house?

Olumsuz Soru (Have not + subject + verb 3)
Haven't I read that book?
Haven't You painted the room?
Hasn't he known that?
Hasn't she played the piano?
Hasn't it worked out?
Haven't we warned them?
Haven't they gone to the meeting?

Örnek 1: to work,

Olumlu

Olumsuz

Soru

I have worked

I haven't worked

Have I worked?

You have worked

You haven't worked

Have you worked?

He, she, it has worked

He, she, it hasn't worked

Has he,she,it worked

We have worked

We haven't worked

Have we worked?

You have worked

You haven't worked

Have you worked?

They have worked

They haven't worked

Have they worked?


Örnek 2: to go,

Olumlu

Olumsuz

Soru

I have gone

I haven't gone

Have I gone?

You have gone

You haven't gone

Have you gone?

He, she, it has gone

He, she, it hasn't gone

Has he,she,it gone

We have gone

We haven't gone

Have we gone?

You have gone

You haven't gone

Have you gone?

They have gone

They haven't gone

Have they gone?

2. Kullanım
Present Perfect Tense geçmiş ile şu an arasındaki bağlantıyı göstermek için kullanılır. Eylem daha önce başlamıştır ama belirsizdir ve eylemin kendisinden çok sonucu önemlidir.

Present perfect Tense'in kullanılışı:

1. Hal ya da eylem geçmişte başlamıştır ve şu anda devam etmektedir.
Örneğin: I have lived in Afyon since 1995 (= and I still do.)

2. Bir süredir devam eden eylem henüz tamamlanmamıştır.
Örneğin: She has been to the theatre five times this week (= and the month isn't over yet.)

3. Geçmiş ile şu an arasında belirsiz bir zaman diliminde tekrarlanan bir eylemi anlatır.
Örneğin: We have visited Cyprus several times.

4.Çok yakın bir geçmişte tamamlanmış bir eylemi anlatır. (just zarfı ile ifade edilir.)
Örneğin: I have just finished my homework.

5. Zamanı önemsiz olan bir eylemi anlatır.
Örneğin: He has read 'Great Gatsby'. (Kitabın okunması yani sonuç önemlidir.)

Önemli Not: when, where, who sorularına ayrıntılı cevaplar vermek istediğimizde , simple past tense kullanırız..
Örneğin: He read 'Great Gatsby' last week.

Örnekler:

1. Geçmişte başlamış ve şu anda devam eden eylemler.
a. They haven't lived here for years.
b. She has worked in the bank for five years.
c. We have had the same car for ten years.
d. Have you played the piano since you were a child?

2. Bir süredir devam eden ve tamamlanmamış eylemler.
a. I have worked hard this week.
b. It has rained a lot this year.
c. We haven't seen her today.

3. Geçmiş ile şu an arasında belirsiz bir zaman diliminde tekrarlanan eylemler.
a. They have seen that film four times.
b. It has happened several times already.
c. She has visited them frequently.
d. We have drunk coffee at that cafe many times.

4.Yakın geçmişte tamamlanmış eylemler (+just).
a. Have you just finished work?
b. I have just eaten.
c. We have just watched the program.
d. Has he just arrive?

5. Zamanı belirsiz ya da önemsiz olan eylemler.
a. Someone has eaten my cake!
b. Have you seen 'Life's an Adventure?
c. She's studied Geograpy, Maths and Science.





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